Oxidative stress is defined as “an imbalance between oxidants and anti-oxidants in favor of the oxidants, leading to a disruption of redox signaling and control and/or molecular damage” [1]. While reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as signaling molecules, excessive amounts can induce lipid, DNA and protein oxidative damage thereby altering structure and function [1].

Under such circumstances antioxidant defences and/or repair processes can fail resulting in an imbalance in favor of greater intracellular ROS availability. However, under such conditions proteolytic mecha-nisms including the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) are acti-vated to remove damaged, oxidized proteins [2].